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Introduction: Sebaceous gland adenitis is a rare condition found in large ruminants, eluding diagnosis and potentially progressing into neoplastic states if left untreated. The aim of the current study was to indicate the benefits of surgical excision of sebaceous gland adenitis in a Jersey crossbred cow.
Case report: A 6-year-old Jersey crossbred cow weighing 300 kg was admitted to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala, India, in December 2022 with a soft tissue mass in the right vulval lip. Initially observed as a small skin bump, the condition had progressively worsened over 2 months, becoming an extensive mass contaminated with external debris and live maggots. Palpation revealed the mass to be firm without eliciting pain. The physiological parameters, such as rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were within normal limits. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters were normal. The mass was resected surgically, and the vulval lip was reconstructed. Postoperatively, the cow received a 5-day course of enrofloxacin (Enro, India) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight, along with 3 days of intramuscular meloxicam at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg body weight and topical application of antiseptic ointment (Lorexane, India). The animal had an uneventful recovery after 2 weeks. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis as sebaceous gland hyperplasia and chronic adenitis.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that timely diagnosis and excision of the vulval tissue mass resulted in a complete recovery and preserved the animal's value. Chronic sebaceous gland adenitis may have a tendency to transform into a benign tumorous condition. The early presentation of the animal and successful surgical intervention prevented this transformation of sebaceous gland adenitis to a benign or malignant condition.
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