Journal of Veterinary Physiology and Pathology (JVPP) is pleased to publish Original Research Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports, Case Series, Reviews, and Book Reviews.
The first page of the manuscripts must include the title and the name(s) of the author(s) typed in Cambria (font sizes: 16pt in capitalization for the title, 11pt for the section headings in the body of the text, and 10pt the main text; single spaced in A4 format with 2cm margins). The manuscript must be saved in a .doc or.docx formats. It is not allowed to have abbreviations in the article title. You can download template_ for preparing your manuscript.
Manuscripts should be prepared in the following order:
a. Title Page
i. Selection and Description of Samples
ii. Technical Information
f. Discussion (can be merged with Results)
h. Disclosure of Financial and Non-Financial Relationships and Activities, and Conflicts of Interest
IV. Authors’ relationships and activities
V. Availability of data and materials
k. Illustrations (Figures)
l. Units of Measurement
m. Abbreviations and Symbols
ARTICLE SECTIONS FORMAT
Title should be a short phrase explaining the contents of the manuscript with the first letter of each word typed in upper case. The Title Page should contain the author(s)’s full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone and e-mail information. The current address (es) of author(s) should appear as a footnote. JVPP encourages the listing of authors’ Open Researcher and Contributor Identification (ORCID).
Abstract should be descriptive and fully self-explanatory, the subject of study should be briefly presented, the nature of the studies should be specified, relevant data should be presented, and significant observations and conclusions should be pointed out. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Abstracts should be limited to 150 to 300 words. It is necessary to use complete statements, active verbs, and the third person, and while writing the abstract in the past tense. It is appropriate to use regular nomenclature and avoid abbreviations. There should be no literature cited in the abstract. For Original Articles, use a structured abstract with the following headings:
Introduction: Provide a short back ground and clearly state the main objectives of the study.
Materials and methods: Mention the study design, the sample(s), and the employed methods of data collection.
Results: Report the main findings.
Conclusion: State the outcome in relation to the hypothesis and possible directions for future studies.
Following the abstract, there should be about 3 to 7 keywords that will provide indexing references. Keywords should be arranged alphabetically.
Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.
A concise statement of the issue, the related literature on the subject, and the proposed method or solution should be presented in the introduction. This section should be written in an understandable way to the research community involved in a wide range of scientific disciplines.
Materials and Methods
Materials and methods should be sufficiently complete to allow the replication of experiments. However, only genuinely new procedures should be described in detail; the employed procedures in the previously conducted studies should be cited, and important changes to the published procedures should be mentioned. This section involves a clear description of the sample collection, including eligibility and exclusion criteria. It is also important to note the employed methods, methods, equipment (give the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures. To further the method section, authors are required to explain the statistical methods to provide the chance for the readers to judge its appropriateness and verify the reported results. For further information you can download JVPP_STATISTICAL_ANALYSIS_GUIDE or contact us at Rovedarjournals@gmail.com
Ethical approval for the animals use in research should be indicated by a separate title in this section. The method section should involve the ethical approval obtained from an independent local, regional or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, institutional review board), and certificate number should be stated.
The obtained results of the study should be presented with clarity and accuracy in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. The result section should be written in the past tense when describing the findings in the author(s)’s experiments. Findings of previously published articles should be written in the present tense. The results should be clarified, but mostly without reference to the literature. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Discussion, speculation, and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the results but should be put into the discussion section.
Discussion can be presented as a separate section or can be merged with the results. In any form, it should interpret the findings regarding the obtained results of the study with reference to previous studies. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the Results sections.
At the end of the paper, state the conclusions in a few sentences. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. Avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses.
Please ensure that the following sections are included at the end of your manuscript in a Declarations section.
-Authors’ relationships and activities
-Availability of data and materials
JVPP encourages the author(s) to acknowledge anyone who contributed to the study but does not meet the criteria for authorship. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements.
This section includes the sources of support for the work, including sponsor names along with explanations of the role of those sources if any in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Authors are expected to declare any restrictions regarding the submission of the report for publication, or a statement declaring that the supporting source had no such involvement or restrictions regarding publication.
The Uniform Requirements by the ICMJE recommends authorship as follows: “Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published; and 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet conditions of 1, 2, 3, and 4”. Authorship is an important aspect of research publication, and all involved authors should agree the whole contents of the document including authorship. Contributors should be differentiated from authors as recommended by the ICMJE.
JVPP does not allow authorship correction after publication unless the editorial staff made an obvious mistake. Before publication, authorship can be changed in case when all authors request the authorship correction.
Declaration of Ethics Including Authorship
The corresponding author must declare research ethics including authorship by stating the following sentences in the cover letter.
“All of the byline authors meet the ICMJE criteria for authorship. We well understand the privilege and responsibility of the authorship of scientific publications. We declare that we are keeping global and/or local guidelines of research and publication ethics strictly including authorship.”
After the manuscript accepted for publication, a declaration form will be sent to the corresponding author who is responsible for coauthors’ agreements to the publication of submitted work in JVPP after any amendments arising from the peer review.
Authors’ relationships and activities
Authors are responsible for disclosing all relationships and activities that might bias or be seen to bias their work. The ICMJE has developed a Disclosure Form to facilitate and standardize the authors’ disclosures. The corresponding author of an article is required to inform the Editor of the authors’ potential conflicts of interest/competing interest possibly influencing the research or interpretation of data. A potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed in the cover letter even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may include financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems. Disclosure form shall be the same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest. The Editor will decide whether the information on the conflicts should be included in the published paper.
Availability of data and materials
Authors are asked to inform the Editor of JVPP about the availability of data to the community, especially if the study is financially supported by any institution, sector, or sponsor.
The JVPP reference style for EndNote can be found here. All references to publications made in the text should be numbered in the order they appear at the end of the study in a list with their full bibliographical description. The citation of grey materials (e.g., mass media, abstract, personal communication) are not allowed unless they provide essential information not available from a public source.
Citations in the Text
Placement of citations: In-text citation numbers should be placed after the relevant part of a sentence before the period.
References are numbered consecutively in the order they are first mentioned. Place each reference number in brackets throughout the text, tables, and legends. If the same reference is used again, re-use the original number.
Tables are numbered consecutively. Supply a brief title for each table and give each column a short heading. Be sure that the table is mentioned in the text. If the data is taken from another source, include the source in the list of references at the end of the paper. Place explanatory matter in a note, not in the heading.
With the growing concern regarding the unhealthy consequences of using chemical preservatives in the food industry, the attention towards natural and herbal substances has been increasing every day. The phenolic acids are recently receiving high attention because of their many promising different useful effects related to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties1-5. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most available phenolic acid compounds in foods, such as coffee and tea6,7.
On the References Page
The last page of your paper is entitled References. References are single spaced, with double-spacing between references. DOI number or the link of article should be added to the end of each reference.
Numbering: List all references in order by number, not alphabetically. Each reference is listed once only, since the same number is used throughout the paper.
Authors: List each author’s last name followed by a space and then initials without any periods; there is a comma and space between authors and a period at the end of the last author. If the number of authors exceeds six, give the first six followed by “et al.” For edited books, place the editors’ names in the author position and follow the last editor with a comma and the word editor (or editors). For edited books with chapters written by individual authors, list the authors of the chapter first, then the chapter title, followed by “In:”, the editors’ names, and the book title (see example 7).
1. Al-Habian A, Harikumar PE, Stocker CJ, Langlands K, and Selway JL. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation of mouse skin histology: Comparison of fixation with neutral buffered formalin and alcoholic formalin. J Histotechnol. 2014; 37(4): 115-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/2046023614Y.0000000050
2. Poling J, Kelly L, Chan C, Fisman D, and Ulanova M. Hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia in a First Nations population. Can J Rural Med [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Apr 27]; 19(4): 135-141. Available at: http://www.srpc.ca/14fal.html by selecting PDF link in table of contents.
3. Aho M, Irshad B, Ackerman SJ, Lewis M, Leddy R, Pope T, et al. Correlation of sonographic features of invasive ductal mammary carcinoma with age, tumor grade, and hormone-receptor status. J Clin Ultrasound [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2015 Apr 27]; 41(1): 10-17. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcu.21990/full, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcu.21990
Preprints may be cited in the reference list of articles under consideration at JVPP journal as shown below:
4. Babichev, SA, Ries, J, and Lvovsky, AI. Quantum scissors: teleportation of single-mode optical states by means of a nonlocal single photon. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0208066; 2002.
5. Buckingham L. Molecular diagnostics: Fundamentals, methods and clinical applications. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; c 2012.
6. College of Medical Radiation Technologists of Ontario. Standards of practice. Toronto: The College; 2011.
7. Kumar V, Abbas AK, and Aster JC, editors. Robbins basic pathology. 16th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; c2013.
8. Altobelli N. Airway management. In: Kacmarek R, Stoller JK, Heuer AJ, editors. Egan’s fundamentals of respiratory care. 10th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Mosby; c2013. p. 732-786.
9. Martin A, Harbison S, Beach K, and Cole P. An introduction to radiation protection [Internet]. 6th ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2012 [cited 2015 May 28]. Available at: http://lrc.michener.ca:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=466903&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_iii with authorized username and password.
10. OpenStax College. Anatomy & physiology [Internet]. Version 7.28. Houston: The College; 2013 Apr 25 [Updated 2015 May 27; cited 2015 May 28]. Available at: http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/.
11. Stedman’s medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2012. Hematoma; p. 756.
12. Canadian Pharmacists Association. CPS 2013: Compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. 48th ed. Ottawa: The Association; c2013. Atropine: Systemic; p. 297-299.
13. Canadian Pharmacists Association. eCPS. [Internet]. Ottawa: The Association; 2015. Methimazole; [revised 2012 Mar; cited 2015 May 28]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://lrc.michener.ca:2048/login/ecps with authorized username and password.
14. Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia [Internet]. St. Petersburg (FL): Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2001 – Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa; [modified 2015 May 28; cited 2015 May 28]; [about 34 screens]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_epidemic_in_West_Africa
15. Carville O. Health ‘snooping’ cases on the rise. Toronto Star. 2015 May 27: Sect. GT:1 (col. 3).
16. Wisniewski M. Five babies at Chicago daycare diagnosed with measles. Globe and Mail [Internet]. 2015 Feb 5 [cited 2015 Feb 6]; Life: [about 2 screens]. Available at: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/five-babies-at-chicago-daycare-diagnosed-with-measles-report/article22805944/.
17. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, S.O. 2005, c.11 [Internet]. 2009 Dec 15 [cited 2015 May 29]. Available from: http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_05a11_e.htm
18. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Depression among seniors in residential care [Analysis in brief on the Internet]. Ottawa: The Institute; 2010 [cited 2015 May 29]. 18 p. Available at: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/ccrs_depression_among_seniors_e.pdf
19. Alzheimer Society of Canada [Internet]. Toronto: The Society; c2015. Benefits of staying active; 2013 Jan 28 [cited 2015 May 29]; [about 1 screen]. Available at: http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/kfla/Living-with-dementia/Day-to-day-living/Staying-active/Benefits-of-staying-active
20. Allen S, and Waerlop I. The Gait Guys talk about great toe dorsiflexion [Internet]. [place unknown]: The Gait Guys; 2014 May 11 [cited 2015 May 29]. Video: 3 min. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8O8TLtunUQ
21. Bickle I. Swallowed foreign body [radiograph]. 2014 Jul 14 [cited 2015 May 29]. In: Radiopaedia.org [Internet]. [place unknown]: Radiopaedia.org; c2005-2015. [about 1 screen]. Available at: http://radiopaedia.org/cases/swallowed-foreign-body-1
22. Munkee. Nuclear Munkee. [blog on the Internet]. [place unknown]: [Munkee]; [date unknown] –. In-111 pentetreotide imaging; 2013 Mar 19 [cited 2015 May 29]; [about 3 screens]. Available at: http://nuclearmunkee.blogspot.ca/2013/03/in-111-pentetreotide-imaging.html
23. Chasman J, and Kaplan RF. The effects of occupation on preserved cognitive functioning in dementia. Poster session presented at: Excellence in clinical practice. 4th Annual Conference of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology; 2006 Jun 15-17; Philadelphia, PA.
Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph forms or repeated in the text.
Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high-resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG, or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper-case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.
Units of Measurement
JVPP requires an exact report of the measurements of length, height, weight, and volume in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury.
Nomenclature and Abbreviations
The following abbreviations may be used without definition in JVPP. Plurals do not require “s”. Chemical symbols and 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids do not need definition. Other abbreviations should be defined at first use in the summary and the main text, as well as in each table or figure in which they appear. Abbreviations should not be used in the manuscript title, running title, or to begin a paragraph or sentence. They can be used in section headings if previously defined.
The following abbreviations may be used without definition in JVPP:
ADF acid detergent fiber
ADFI average daily feed intake ADG average daily gain
AME apparent metabolizable energy
AMEn nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy
ANOVA analysis of variance
AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists
BSA bovine serum albumin
BW body weight
cDNA complementary DNA
CF crude fiber
cfu colony-forming units (following a numeral)
CI confidence interval
CP crude protein
cpm counts per minute
CV coefficient of variation d day
df degrees of freedom
DM dry matter
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
EE ether extract
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
FCR feed conversion ratio
FE feed efficiency
ft foot g gram
G:F gain-to-feed ratio
GLM general linear model
HEPES N-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid
HPLC high-performance (high-pressure) liquid chromatography
ICU international chick units
IU international units
L liter (also capitalized with any combination, e.g., mL)
L:D hours of light:hours of darkness in a photoperiod
LSD least significant difference
ME metabolizable energy
MEn nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy
MHC major histocompatibility complex
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid min minute
MS mean squares
n number of observations
NADH reduced form of NAD
NDF neutral detergent fiber
NRC National Research Council
NS not significant
PBS phosphate-buffered saline
PCR polymerase chain reaction ppm parts per million
r correlation coefficient
r2 coefficient of determination, simple
R2 coefficient of determination, multiple
RH relative humidity
RNA ribonucleic acid
rpm revolutions per minute s second
SAS Statistical Analysis System
SD standard deviation
SE standard error
SEM standard error of the mean
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
SRBC sheep red blood cells
TBA thiobarbituric acid
T cell thymic-derived cell
TME true metabolizable energy
TMEn nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy
TSAA total sulfur amino acids
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
vol/vol volume to volume
wt/vol weight to volume
wt/wt weight to weight
Formulae, numbers, and symbols
Typewritten formulae are preferred. Subscripts and superscripts are important. Check disparities between zero (0) and the letter 0, and between one (1) and the letter I.
Describe all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used.
For simple fractions, use the solidus (/), e.g. 10 /38.
Equations should be presented into parentheses on the right-hand side, in tandem.
Levels of statistical significance which can be used without further explanations are *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001
In the English articles, a decimal point should be used instead of a decimal comma.
In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given, e.g. Ca2+ and CO32-, not as Ca++ or CO3.
Numbers up to 10 should be written in the text by words. Numbers above 1000 are recommended to be given as 10 powered x.
Greek letters should be explained in the margins with their names as follows: Αα - alpha, Ββ - beta, Γγ - gamma, Δδ - delta, Εε - epsilon, Ζζ - zeta, Ηη - eta, Θθ - theta, Ιι - iota, Κκ - kappa, Λλ - lambda, Μμ - mu, Νν - nu, Ξξ - xi, Οο - omicron, Ππ - pi, Ρρ - rho, Σσ - sigma, Ττ - tau, Υυ - ipsilon, Φφ - phi, Χχ - chi, Ψψ - psi, Ωω - omega.
The enhancing number of SNP researches and the improvements in chicken genome annotation need a standardized SNP nomenclature for unequivocal and correct SNP identification. Furthermore, information regarding the SNP studies should be easily accessible in databases. In addition, all relevant SNP involved in research should be listed with their unique Ref SNP (rs) or submitted SNP (ss) number (if rs number is not yet available) as indicated in the public domain NCBI dbSNP database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp). If the investigated SNP does not yet have an entry in the NCBI dbSNP database, the authors of the article can submit all the necessary information to NCBI (Check http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/) for depositing the SNP into this database and having a unique ss number for the SNP. In the text of the article, use of the rs/ss number of the SNP or an alternative standardized nomenclature is suggested.
Please note that no correction to a paper already published will be made by JVPP. Authors are required to ensure the accuracy of the submitted manuscript, especially before the article is published online.
Authors’ corrections to Supplementary Data are made only in exceptional circumstances (for example major errors that compromise the conclusion of the study). Because the Supplementary Data is part of the original paper and hence the published record, the information cannot be updated if new data have become available or interpretations have changed.
Firstly, all manuscripts will be checked by iThenticate, a plagiarism finding tool. In the next step, the manuscript is subjected to the blind reviewing model used by JVPP for non-plagiarized papers. The manuscript is edited and reviewed by the English language editor and three reviewers selected by the managing editor of JVPP, respectively. Furthermore, a reviewer result form is filled by the reviewer to guide authors. Possible decisions include accept as is, minor revision, major revision, or reject. Authors should submit back their revisions within 14 days in the case of minor revision, or 28 days in the case of major revision.
Authors need to submit a revision through JVPP online submission system. After the article is reviewed and edited, the corresponding author is asked to apply all suggested corrections to the final formatted proof. The authors should know that no modification is possible after this phase of the publishing process and the corresponding authors are responsible for any probable mistakes in the final publication. Manuscripts with significant results are typically reviewed and published at the highest priority.
There is a zero-tolerance policy towards plagiarism (including self-plagiarism) in JVPP journal. Manuscripts are screened for plagiarism by iThenticate, a plagiarism finding tool, before or during publication, and if found they will be rejected at any stage of processing.
DATE OF ISSUE
The journal will be issued quarterly.
No peer-reviewing charges are required. All accepted papers publish in full text and free of charges.
OPEN ACCESS POLICY
JVPP is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author following the BOAI definition of Open Access.
© 2022. JVPP is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 license.
The manuscript and other correspondence should preferentially be submitted via our online submission system. Please, embed all figures and tables in the manuscript to become one single file for submission. Once the submission is complete, the system will generate a manuscript ID and password sent to the author’s contact emails: info@JVPP-journal.com. All manuscripts must be checked (by English native speaker) and submitted in English for evaluation (in a totally confidential and impartial way). In case authors feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use our English Language Editing Service.
The JVPP online submission system allows supplementary information to be submitted together with the main manuscript file and cover letter. JVPP word template can assist you by modifying your page layout, text formatting, headings, title page, image placement, and citations/references such that they agree with the guidelines of the journal. If you believe your article is fully edited per journal style, please use our MS Word template before submission.
Supplementary materials may include figures, tables, methods, videos, and other materials. They are available online linked to the original published article. Supplementary tables and figures should be labeled with a "S", e.g. "Table S1" and "Figure S1".
The maximum file size for supplementary materials is 10MB each. Please keep the files as small as possible to avoid the frustrations experienced by readers with downloading large files.
Submission to the Journal is on the understanding that:
1. The article has not been previously published in any other form and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;
2. All authors have approved the submission and have obtained permission for the published work.
3. Researchers are required to consider animal welfare (see IAVE-Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare) and pay attention to “Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, 4th edition, 2020”. Any negative impacts of the study on study populations (including animals or individual organisms) should be considered. In case, it is required to have the approval of an ethics committee, please include the name of the committee and the approval number in your submitted manuscript.
ETHICS COMMITTEE APPROVAL
Experimental research involving animals should have been approved by the author’s institutional review board or ethics committee. This information can be mentioned in the manuscript, including the name of the board/committee that approved. The use of animals in experiments will have observed the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education by the New York Academy of Sciences, Ad Hoc Animal Research Committee. The authors should mention the methods of killing experimental animals and mention the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent while explaining surgical procedures. Please note that the JVPP editor-in-chief may decide to reject the manuscripts that avoid following the animal care guidelines.
* Authors are required to check the JVPP_PRE-SUBMISSION before submitting their manuscript.